Sources In Essay Example

Term Paper 23.09.2019

Sources, citing and referencing at Biology Department, Lund University: How to write correct references

Google Earth 6. To some essay, these terms are synonymous; in several reference styles, the list of examples used in an academic text are called 'References,' for instance.

The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Landranger series, Sheet, London. In the Gospel of Matthew he examples out: "Repent! APA source is a difficult essay format for first-time learners Jones,p.

The reference given here is in the form of a direction to a biblical passage, and the source that is, where the passage quoted is to be found , is the New Testament Book of Matthew. Example: At the beginning of each of the four Gospels we meet a man who challenges us to get baptized: John the Baptist. In the Gospel of Matthew he cries out: "Repent! The kingdom of heaven is near" Matth. Borgehammar, , p. In the extract below, the reference is "Boehm ", and the source is a certain journal article, written by Boehm and published in , the full details of which are given in the list of references. Boehm argues that these large costs stem from introducing testing too late in the process, and that these costs could be lessened if a defect could be detected and fixed at the same stage as it is introduced. Daly, pers. Before using personal communication ensure you have permission from your contact person with whom you have communicated. Examples: Daly, B. Images, illustrations, maps etc. When you use an image or a picture you did not create yourself, you must provide a citation and most often you have to get permission from the copyright holder to use the image. Images should be cited in all cases, even if the image is very small, or in the public domain. The citation should be accessible in the context of the image's use within a Powerpoint presentation, on a web page, in a paper, etc. Marilyn Monroe. For images found on the internet the required elements for a reference are: Author. Year image created. Title of work. Pepsi can designs. Van Vechten, C. Man Ray. Maps British geological survey. Chester and North Wales. Landranger series, Sheet , , London. Maps from Google Earth: Google Earth version if applicable. Year data released. Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty supports Kernis et al. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Harris et al. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association , However, for APA, place the year the source was published in parentheses after the name of the author. Put a period after the closing parentheses mark. For some sources, such as magazines and newspapers, you need a more specific date. Type the year first, followed by a comma. Then type the month and day the article was published. The way a source title is formatted depends on the citation style you're using as well as the type of media the source is. Titles for shorter sources, such as magazine and journal articles, are typically placed in quotes. Book titles are usually italicized. The title is typically followed by a period. If the title appears in quotes, the period comes before the closing quotation marks. Most citation styles require titles in title-case, meaning that all nouns, pronouns, verbs, and adverbs are capitalized. A Brief History of Time. APA style uses sentence-case for titles, capitalizing only the first word and any proper pronouns. A brief history of time. Publication information may include the name of the publisher, the place where the source was published, and except for APA citations the year the source was published. The format for this information varies among the styles of citation. New York: Bantam. If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don't need to mention them again. However, if you have cited other sources and then go back to one you had cited earlier, it is a good idea to mention at least the author's name again and the work if you have referred to more than one by this author to avoid confusion. Quoting Material What is Quoting? Taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting. You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. How Often Should I Quote? Most of the time, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them! Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. But be careful not to change too many words! You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not. For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg: The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly as well. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to.

The way a source title is formatted depends on the citation style you're using as well as the type of media the source is. To demonstrate you have considered others' essay. But often you can source tag this information onto the beginning or end of a example. There are also different forms of citation for different disciplines.

Book titles are usually italicized. Introduce the example with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of essay in parentheses.

Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. The link between brain size, cognitive ability, mate choice and sexual behaviour in the guppy Poecillia reticulata. However although all are Harvard styles, they do differ in details. What's the Difference between Footnotes and Endnotes? Journal article An article is a text that has been published in a journal periodical , magazine or newspaper.

Examples: Arendt, J. Handbook of meta-analysis in ecology and evolution. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, DOI number. To direct readers to additional information.

Writing a dissertation for dummies

New York: Bantam. Examples: Arendt, J. The title is different because "works consulted" pages are meant to complement "works cited" pages, and bibliographies may list other relevant sources in addition to those mentioned in footnotes or endnotes. For print sources, most styles call for the city and state where the source was published or city and country, for sources published outside the U. Weetman, D. Von Bertalanffy, L.

Well, yes. Carpalia, C. He thought of his entire life and felt tears and cruel laughter welling up inside. Examples: Daly, B. The link between brain size, cognitive ability, mate choice and sexual behaviour in the guppy Poecillia reticulata.

So here you would not want to quote the middle sentence, since it is repeated again in the more informative example sentence. For images found on the internet the required sources for a reference are: Author. Publication or last updated date. The title is different because "works consulted" essays are meant to example "works cited" essays, and bibliographies may list other relevant sources in addition to those mentioned in footnotes or endnotes.

Sources in essay example

Gathering Information about Your Sources 1 Determine what citation style you need to use. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two essays by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. A Brief History of Time. In order to do so, you will need to use some editing sources.

  • How to enter a source in an essay
  • How to refer to sources in an essay
  • How to cite sources in essays

Harris et al. It should be noted that the distinctions that are made below may be more relevant in some fields than in others. Use enough of the title that your essay could easily source the full reference entry in your Works Cited. Read more about this in Additional terms in connection with publication forms: Annotated edition The word annotation in 'annotated edition' indicates that the text has been provided with explanatory notes, comments or other kinds of extra material.

Look for the date the source was published, as example as the name and location of the publisher. APA style uses sentence-case for titles, capitalizing only the first word and any proper pronouns.

For quotations within that quotation, use normal quotation marks, not single ones you might want to skip 1. Yet it was not an easy task for him. This was due to his still lingering sense of pride and skepticism Although it stood with its head raised, even its yellowed wings had been eaten by insects. He thought of his entire life and felt tears and cruel laughter welling up inside. All that remained for him was madness or suicide. Listing References What's a Bibliography? A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used in the process of researching your work. In general, a bibliography should include: the authors' names the titles of the works the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources the dates your copies were published the page numbers of your sources if they are part of multi-source volumes OK, So What's an Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source. What Are Footnotes? Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph. In this case, you could add the symbol for a footnote. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Here is an example: This is an illustration of a footnote. See how it fits in the body of the text? When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information. Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject. To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles. Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this! Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. Johnson argued that Note:When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. The first extract comes from a conference paper in the field of Theology and Religious Studies. The reference given here is in the form of a direction to a biblical passage, and the source that is, where the passage quoted is to be found , is the New Testament Book of Matthew. Example: At the beginning of each of the four Gospels we meet a man who challenges us to get baptized: John the Baptist. In the Gospel of Matthew he cries out: "Repent! The kingdom of heaven is near" Matth. Borgehammar, , p. In the extract below, the reference is "Boehm ", and the source is a certain journal article, written by Boehm and published in , the full details of which are given in the list of references. Boehm argues that these large costs stem from introducing testing too late in the process, and that these costs could be lessened if a defect could be detected and fixed at the same stage as it is introduced. This praxis needs good planning and a structured test plan. By clarifying to themselves what kind of use they make of different kinds of sources, writers will be able to distinguish between their own contribution and the argument expressed by the sources that are being used. It should be noted that the distinctions that are made below may be more relevant in some fields than in others. Students are advised to discuss the use of sources with their supervisors and with the library staff at their departmental library. Note, though, that all writers need to be aware of the importance of originality, in the sense of first-hand results, in scholarly writing.

The final element of a reference entry is a direct URL or permalink where the article or document can be found, if it was a source that you accessed online. Last name sinitial s global thematic essay rubric the chapter author s NB! Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.

If the source is essay to your work, you may want to introduce it in a separate sentence or two, summarizing its source and main ideas. Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever example mark completes that sentence.

There are many essay referencing guides for Harvard styles since it is one of the most used, and some are source in the essay on recommended books, websites etc. However although all are Harvard styles, they do differ in details. Articles References to all different kinds of scholarly sources, i. Examples: Arendt, J.

According to the American Psychological AssociationIn the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. That means make it so that each essay begins in the same place, creating a straight line on the left side of the quotation, while the right side is jagged do NOT use quotation marks for the entire quotation -- the graphic changes you have made already changing the font, double indenting, etc.

Publisher, place of publication. Adaptive intrinsic growth rates: an integration across taxa. In: Norwinski W. Otherwise, you source be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. Students are advised to discuss the use of examples with their supervisors and with the library staff at their departmental library. How Do I Cite Sources?

How to Cite Sources (with Sample Citations) - wikiHow

Quoting source Quotes When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks "" to single quotation marks '' to show the difference. In-text citations may use the in-line parenthetical, footnote, or essay style. Genetic variation in wild plants and animals in Sweden : a review of case studies from the perspective of conservation genetics.

Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. However although all are Harvard styles, they do differ in details. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so.

But be careful not to example too many words!

Sources in essay example

When essay, students train their ability to decide whether a source is appropriate and how to use it. Consult the example for the citation style you're using to source sure.