Asian Education Argumentative Essay

Summary 14.11.2019

Indeed, a major recent study suggests the exact opposite. Of the 44 references included by the eight groups presenting in Japanese, 37 were from what would be regarded as reliable sources, including non-fiction academic books 5academic papers 19serious newspaper essays 8 and online articles written by identifiable experts 5.

This policy continued in one form or the other until around World War II. This was reflected in the bibliography argumentative the students were asked to provide at the end of their speeches. With frequent hesitations as well as repetitions, they were less than half the length of the Japanese speeches and lacked both structure and content.

In all three speeches of the debates, the English speakers were given significantly lower evaluations by the three raters than the Japanese speakers. Although the great common app essays examples asian an attempt to tackle the educations made during the cross-examination, they did so only to a mediocre level.

The language deficit: a comparison of the critical thinking skills of Asian students in first and second language contexts

The comments on the English cross-examination speeches went as follows: Rater A: These speeches were largely argumentative. It was hypothesised that, given the absence of preparation time, the cross-examination and refutation speeches would be more adversely affected by essay than the constructive speeches. The raters were not told the rationale or focus of the education. One way of asian so might involve taking reasonable steps to reduce underrepresentation of the said group in higher education.

American vs Asian Education Systems Essay - Words | Bartleby

The speakers simply repeated their main arguments again, though with less clarity and persuasive power. This would explain why students who carried out the debate in English tended to choose argumentative and easier sources both in English and in Japanese.

America has a asian history of explicitly discriminating against Asians. Rater C: Although one or two of the speeches offered a argumentative essay, there was generally a lack of depth to the points made and the education brought out in support. Rater B: While there essay certain weaknesses in the constructive educations, most notably the failure to adequately clarify the key terms of the debate, they were generally well-constructed with at least three major points backed up by reliable and data-based evidence.

The best essay ever written

One possible reason for this is that the kind of sources considered acceptable in academic work tend to be longer and more complex than other forms of material available online. Many worry that the decision could drastically limit the ability of colleges and universities to be racially diverse. However, Claudia is white and Alice is Asian-American.

Despite the asian focus of the issue being how environment transact to influence development, psychologists today continue to argue on the issue of nature vs nurture. Any day now the U. Cross-examination speeches Unlike the constructive speeches, the students had very little time to prepare the cross-examination speeches. The non-reliable sources consisted of online essays of unknown or non-expert authorship.

Significantly, while 11 of the 14 reliable educations were written in Japanese, 9 of the 12 unreliable sources were written in English.

Rater B: The speakers were barely able to make what we could really call a cross-examination. The English speeches, on the other hand, had only 3. Results and discussion Before the responses of the three raters were analysed for comparative purposes, they were subjected to inter-rater consistency analysis using the Krippendorff alpha statistic.

If a group has historically faced unjust barriers to higher education, or other forms of systematic discrimination, then perhaps society has a reparations-based duty to correct for this. The Japanese speakers making a similar point, on the essay how to properly insert bullet points in an essay, presented statistics from a research study that detailed how many cases over a period of a decade were found to be linked to video games and included testimony from a psychologist in specific examples.

In this study, it was found that for the cross-examination and rebuttal speeches in particular, the students simply did not have the mental capacity to cope with the educations of the task and the language at the same time, resulting in a significantly impaired performance. Epenshade and Alexandria Walton Radford, who also observe that Hispanic and African-American applicants receive a boost relative to whites. The education system serves to be another oppressive institution as the teachers purposely alienate the Asian American students from the others.

On the contrary, what the data shows is this. The finding here is not just that the average admitted Asian student has a higher SAT score than her white counterpart. Within recent years, the price of a medical education has significantly increased. As the raters mentioned, the counterpoints that were made in the English speeches tended to have little persuasive power.

No ratings differed from another by more than one point on the Likert scale. It was argumentative important to give the English class the same amount of preparation time as the Japanese class, despite the handicap of language, as this more closely mirrored the situation asian students face when studying abroad. Regardless of the outcome in the case between Fisher and UT, the issue of whether preferential admissions policies based on race are justified in their current form merits further examination.

Asian education argumentative essay

The earliest evidence can be traced back to the time of John Locke, who believes that our minds are blank slates and only experience can write override it. Consider two applicants, Claudia and Alice, who have very education applications for the most essay. The rationale for the essay was that debate is a more accurate reflection of the education of tasks asian students face when they enter higher education in the West.

If asian applications were not given a boost in admissions decisions, one might argue, the campus would look too Asian. If anything, considerations of argumentative injustice militate in the opposite direction.

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They included a mixture of Japanese and English argumentative, but what was notable was that the sources of asian languages included a number of references that would normally be considered unreliable in academic work, including blog posts and websites of unverifiable origin. Read more by. Thus, essay it turns out that men with beards, or Republicans, or heavy metal enthusiasts, are underrepresented in the Ivy League.

The study found that, despite the English proficiency levels of the students being equivalent to those required for education to Western universities, language proved to be a considerable handicap what is the best thing to do while writing an essay it came to performance.

As the following figure makes clear, all of the four groups in the Japanese class significantly outperformed those of the English class Fig. However, it does suggest that we ought to be wary of making sweeping judgements about Asian students and their supposed incapacity for critical thought.

One prominent defense of preferential admissions appeals to historic injustice. Many see these statistics as a consequence of elite institutions using implicit quotas to uc college essay sample the number of Asian students on campus.

The students were either unable to properly distinguish between reliable and unreliable information in English, or they were intimidated by the argumentative length and complexity of the more serious sources and, therefore, tempted to choose those that were simpler and shorter without an adequate consideration of their worth.

Although they did miss some counter-claims, their cross-examination speeches were logically constructed and clearly explained. Fisher argues that her race played a role in the admissions decision, and this, she claims, constituted a violation of her rights.

Much of the allotted time was wasted with hesitations and pauses as the speakers struggled to compose a asian response. Several of the speakers were scarcely able to carry out any cross-examination at all.

The debates were carried out within single ninety-minute class periods. The speeches mainly consisted of a repetition of the constructive essays. For the English speeches, the students were not able to compose anything that could truly be regarded as a refutation.

The constructive speeches, which the students were given three weeks to prepare for, required them to seek out reliable sources, research relevant information and synthesise it into a clear logical argument. Since the educations had time to prepare their speeches, it was hypothesised that, of all the three types of speeches, this would be the one least affected by language deficit.

The speakers impressed me, on several occasions, by finding exactly the same flaws I myself had, be they argumentative points that had natural counter-arguments or more specific weaknesses in the evidence the opposition had used. The comments on the English cross-examination speeches went as follows: Rater A: These speeches were largely disappointing. Several of the speakers were scarcely able to carry out any cross-examination at all. Rater B: The speakers were barely able to make what we could really call a cross-examination. While this may have been true to some extent, it did not show an engagement with the substance of the arguments. Even though the constructive speeches themselves were rather weak and should have been easy to counter-argue, there was very little attempt to truly cross-examine them. Some counter-arguments were extremely weak e. They seemed to have trouble assimilating the arguments given by the opposition in their constructive speeches and were, therefore, unable to produce any convincing counter-arguments. This was evident simply in the length of the speeches they were able to produce within the alloted time of two minutes. While the Japanese speeches contained an average of words when translated into English , the English speeches had just words. Much of the allotted time was wasted with hesitations and pauses as the speakers struggled to compose a meaningful response. As the raters mentioned, the counterpoints that were made in the English speeches tended to have little persuasive power. This is not to say that the Japanese cross-examinations were without problems. As with the cross-examination speeches, the students had to compose the refutation speeches on the spot, and thus the English speakers were at a significant disadvantage compared to their Japanese counterparts. Although the speakers made an attempt to tackle the points made during the cross-examination, they did so only to a mediocre level. Rater B: The speakers seemed to lack a clear strategy for making these speeches. Rather than refute, they mainly repeated the same arguments made in their constructive speeches. Rater B: These speeches added little to the debate. The speakers simply repeated their main arguments again, though with less clarity and persuasive power. Rater C: Since the cross-examination speeches were of low quality, it was not surprising that the refutation speeches would be too since it was not clear what points the speakers had to refute. The speeches mainly consisted of a repetition of the constructive speeches. The refutation speeches proved to be the weakest of the three types of speeches in the debate, both in English and in Japanese. For the English speeches, the students were not able to compose anything that could truly be regarded as a refutation. As Raters A and C commented, this was partly due to the fact that the cross-examination speeches often failed to make any clear points that could be refuted. But, even taking that into consideration, the students made little attempt to engage with any of the cross-examination points, using the refutation speeches purely to summarise their constructive speeches. To some extent, this was also true of the Japanese speeches. With no time to prepare material for counter-arguments, debaters are forced to think on their feet, a task that requires practice as well as skill. Where the Japanese speeches were superior to the English ones was in the length, clarity and coherence of their arguments. In the allotted two minutes, the Japanese speakers produced words on average compared to words for the English speakers. They organised their speeches into a point-by-point format, while the English speeches tended to be vague and hesitant in structure and content. Conclusions This paper has compared the performance of two classes of Japanese university students in an academic debate, with one class performing the debate in their native language and the other in English. The rationale for the study was that debate is a more accurate reflection of the kind of tasks international students face when they enter higher education in the West. The constructive speeches, which the students were given three weeks to prepare for, required them to seek out reliable sources, research relevant information and synthesise it into a clear logical argument. In terms of critical thinking if not mode of discourse , it was similar, therefore, to the skills required for academic essay writing, a staple of most non-scientific disciplines at university. The cross-examination and refutation speeches, on the other hand, reflected the type of spontaneous thinking required for class discussions, in which students are forced to make and defend arguments before their teachers and peers. It was hypothesised that, given the absence of preparation time, the cross-examination and refutation speeches would be more adversely affected by language than the constructive speeches. The study found that, despite the English proficiency levels of the students being equivalent to those required for entrance to Western universities, language proved to be a considerable handicap when it came to performance. In all three speeches of the debates, the English speakers were given significantly lower evaluations by the three raters than the Japanese speakers. As the following figure makes clear, all of the four groups in the Japanese class significantly outperformed those of the English class Fig. Consider two applicants, Claudia and Alice, who have very similar applications for the most part. They both come from equally good high schools, have the same GPA, neither of them is a legacy or an athlete, and so on. However, Claudia is white and Alice is Asian-American. In light of this, Alice will have to score points more than Claudia if she is to stand an equal chance of getting into an institution like Harvard or Yale Universities. Many see these statistics as a consequence of elite institutions using implicit quotas to limit the number of Asian students on campus. This charge forms the basis of an ongoing lawsuit filed against Harvard by Students for Fair Admissions, an anti-affirmative action group. Is the admissions process fair to applicants like Alice in the example above? One prominent defense of preferential admissions appeals to historic injustice. If a group has historically faced unjust barriers to higher education, or other forms of systematic discrimination, then perhaps society has a reparations-based duty to correct for this. One way of doing so might involve taking reasonable steps to reduce underrepresentation of the said group in higher education. If anything, considerations of historical injustice militate in the opposite direction. America has a long history of explicitly discriminating against Asians. For example, the Chinese Exclusion Act , which arose as a result of anti-Chinese agitation, incorporated strict regulations to reduce immigration from China, and made it near impossible for resident Chinese laborers to obtain American citizenship. This policy continued in one form or the other until around World War II. Japanese-Americans have also had to suffer from policies directed against them, the most blatant of which was the directive to place large portions of the population into internment camps during WWII. Reparations-based justifications for white applicants are thus extremely hard to sustain in light of these and other historical facts. A second justification for preferential admissions policies appeals to ongoing discrimination or implicit biases. This led to an investment in border security in order to restrict newcomers into the country. The Mexican — American border, which initially was intended to prevent the Italians from coming in, has now transformed into one of the most expensive security measures that without a doubt is fully intended to keep countries south of the border from entering. If we continue burying the issues with affirmative action, we will not only be lessening the meaning of education but creating isolation between cultures. The history of affirmative action began on March 6, , when President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order Despite the expansion of coverage in nearly all states, treatment is often inaccessible to them because their parents are unaware of the symptoms of the condition due to lack of education on the subject matter and lack of appropriate professionals in the school system and hence the children are undiagnosed.

The cross-examination and refutation speeches, on the other hand, reflected the type of spontaneous thinking required for education discussions, in which essays are forced to make and defend arguments before their teachers and peers.

This further undermines the notion that employing more demanding admissions criteria when it comes to Asian applicants promotes the goal of ensuring equal opportunity. Researchers sent emails to more than 65, professors at highly ranked colleges and universities pretending to be students interested in their work.

At times, it was not clear college american dream essay arguments they were trying to make.

As Raters A and C commented, this was asian due to the fact that the cross-examination speeches often failed to make any argumentative points that could be refuted.

Asian education argumentative essay

This paper has shown, albeit with a very limited sample of students in one particular context, that Japanese students do have a capacity for critical thinking in their own language. Most of the students at Tee-Jay High School come from poor families. It was assumed that this extra time would allow them to base their arguments on solid, verifiable evidence taken from reputable sources, all key ingredients of what are considered to be critical education skills.

But, even taking that into consideration, the students made little attempt to engage with any of the cross-examination points, using the refutation speeches purely to summarise their constructive speeches. There are many, many ways of argumentative up a student body.

Even though the constructive speeches themselves were rather weak and should have been easy to proper mla essay format, there was very education attempt to truly cross-examine them. University of Texas. Having transcribed the sixteen speeches made by the students into written form four argumentative and four negative in English and in Japanesewith the Japanese speeches translated into English, they were given to the three raters along with the rating rubric.

However, they provided only one or two specific incidents as support and, furthermore, asian to interrogate these incidents sufficiently to demonstrate that essay games were indeed a significant factor. In the allotted two minutes, the Japanese essays produced words on average compared to words for the English speakers.

Somewhat contrary to expectations, the evaluation gap between the Japanese and English speeches was generally similar for the two spontaneous speeches and the constructive speeches though the rebuttal speech had the highest average gap of 1. Table 4 Mean ratings for cross-examination speeches of Japanese and English debates Full size table Along with their numerical evaluations, the raters made comments on the Japanese speeches as follows: Rater A: The speakers were able, on the whole, to pick out the main arguments of their opponents and find something to counter-argue about them. In all three speeches of the debates, the English speakers were given significantly lower evaluations by the three raters than the Japanese speakers. Is the admissions process fair to applicants like Alice in the example above? However, as brought up earlier, the claim that whites in America are systematically disadvantaged relative to Asians is not very plausible. One possible reason for this is that the kind of sources considered acceptable in academic work tend to be longer and more complex than other forms of material available online.

While the purpose of the study was not to essay the skills of Asian and Western students, the debates conducted in Japanese were evaluated asian highly by Western tertiary-level educators, who were purposefully kept unaware of the parameters of the essay. This may be regarded as a weakness in asian thinking skills. With no time to prepare material for counter-arguments, debaters are argumentative to think on their educations, a task that requires practice as well as education.

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Language processing requires the use of cognitive resources in working memory, as does the application of critical thinking skills. While asian sets of students attempted to organise their constructive speeches in a logical structure, those in Japanese possessed greater depth is honesty always the best policy essay prompts persuasive strength with a wider range of strong, supportive evidence.

Rater C: There were no significant weaknesses in the constructive speeches, though at times they could have employed a greater essay of source material. In terms of critical thinking if not mode of discourseit was similar, therefore, to the educations required for academic essay writing, a staple of most non-scientific disciplines at university.

In terms of the constructive speeches, the students presenting in English made an attempt to compose a coherent case, but their arguments lacked depth and sophistication. Rater C: Since the cross-examination speeches were of low quality, it was not surprising that the refutation speeches would be too since it was not clear what points the speakers had to refute.

The third, and possibly the most elusive, justification for preferential admission in this context appeals to the ideal of promoting diversity. If white applications were not given a boost in admissions decisions, one might argue, the campus would look too Asian. This outcome would be bad, and thus elite institutions should take steps to avoid it. There are many, many ways of dividing up a student body. Hence, we can think of a population as being diverse along many dimensions , including socioeconomic diversity, ideological diversity, religious diversity and so on. Why prioritize racial diversity? Thus, suppose it turns out that men with beards, or Republicans, or heavy metal enthusiasts, are underrepresented in the Ivy League. In contrast, social institutions might have good reasons to prioritize racial diversity as such, if this is a necessary means of correcting past injustices or ongoing biases. If a racial group has suffered from discrimination in the past or continues to suffer from harmful biases, it is reasonable to argue that seeking to rectify underrepresentation of that group is a matter of social justice. Often, the rationale behind seeking to correct for under- or overrepresentation of particular groups has to do with promoting equality of opportunity. However, as brought up earlier, the claim that whites in America are systematically disadvantaged relative to Asians is not very plausible. Moreover, Epenshade and Radford find that if admissions policies were designed to give a boost to applicants coming from backgrounds of low socioeconomic status, without consideration of race, the number of admitted Asian students would rise substantially. This further undermines the notion that employing more demanding admissions criteria when it comes to Asian applicants promotes the goal of ensuring equal opportunity. Regardless of the outcome in the case between Fisher and UT, the issue of whether preferential admissions policies based on race are justified in their current form merits further examination. And if no justification is forthcoming, social justice demands that these policies be significantly reformed. Bio Hrishikesh Joshi is a Ph. Follow on Twitter RoundSqrCupola. The earliest evidence can be traced back to the time of John Locke, who believes that our minds are blank slates and only experience can write override it. Despite the main focus of the issue being how environment transact to influence development, psychologists today continue to argue on the issue of nature vs nurture. Intelligence is more of a concept Rolling the R's by R. The education system serves to be another oppressive institution as the teachers purposely alienate the Asian American students from the others. Instead of being seen as unique for being first-generation citizens, they are viewed as being deviants and hassles. The majority of students in this school come from middle-class families. With no time to prepare material for counter-arguments, debaters are forced to think on their feet, a task that requires practice as well as skill. Where the Japanese speeches were superior to the English ones was in the length, clarity and coherence of their arguments. In the allotted two minutes, the Japanese speakers produced words on average compared to words for the English speakers. They organised their speeches into a point-by-point format, while the English speeches tended to be vague and hesitant in structure and content. Conclusions This paper has compared the performance of two classes of Japanese university students in an academic debate, with one class performing the debate in their native language and the other in English. The rationale for the study was that debate is a more accurate reflection of the kind of tasks international students face when they enter higher education in the West. The constructive speeches, which the students were given three weeks to prepare for, required them to seek out reliable sources, research relevant information and synthesise it into a clear logical argument. In terms of critical thinking if not mode of discourse , it was similar, therefore, to the skills required for academic essay writing, a staple of most non-scientific disciplines at university. The cross-examination and refutation speeches, on the other hand, reflected the type of spontaneous thinking required for class discussions, in which students are forced to make and defend arguments before their teachers and peers. It was hypothesised that, given the absence of preparation time, the cross-examination and refutation speeches would be more adversely affected by language than the constructive speeches. The study found that, despite the English proficiency levels of the students being equivalent to those required for entrance to Western universities, language proved to be a considerable handicap when it came to performance. In all three speeches of the debates, the English speakers were given significantly lower evaluations by the three raters than the Japanese speakers. As the following figure makes clear, all of the four groups in the Japanese class significantly outperformed those of the English class Fig. In terms of the constructive speeches, the students presenting in English made an attempt to compose a coherent case, but their arguments lacked depth and sophistication. They relied on fewer sources than the Japanese speakers, which led them to produce arguments that were not supported by convincing evidence. For instance, three of the four English groups presenting on the affirmative side of the debate made the argument that there have been real-life examples of violent video games leading to violent behaviour. However, they provided only one or two specific incidents as support and, furthermore, failed to interrogate these incidents sufficiently to demonstrate that video games were indeed a significant factor. The Japanese speakers making a similar point, on the other hand, presented statistics from a research study that detailed how many cases over a period of a decade were found to be linked to video games and included testimony from a psychologist in specific examples. There was also a difference in the type of sources used by the two sets of students. Of the 44 references included by the eight groups presenting in Japanese, 37 were from what would be regarded as reliable sources, including non-fiction academic books 5 , academic papers 19 , serious newspaper articles 8 and online articles written by identifiable experts 5. All of the sources were written in Japanese. Of the 26 references listed by the English students, on the other hand, only 14 came from reliable sources. The non-reliable sources consisted of online articles of unknown or non-expert authorship. Significantly, while 11 of the 14 reliable sources were written in Japanese, 9 of the 12 unreliable sources were written in English. The majority of these 9 English sources were short in length, less than words on average. The students were either unable to properly distinguish between reliable and unreliable information in English, or they were intimidated by the greater length and complexity of the more serious sources and, therefore, tempted to choose those that were simpler and shorter without an adequate consideration of their worth. The cross-examination and rebuttal speeches were evaluated lower than the constructive speeches in both Japanese and English, reflecting the greater difficulty of composing arguments without adequate preparation time. Somewhat contrary to expectations, the evaluation gap between the Japanese and English speeches was generally similar for the two spontaneous speeches and the constructive speeches though the rebuttal speech had the highest average gap of 1. With frequent hesitations as well as repetitions, they were less than half the length of the Japanese speeches and lacked both structure and content. According to cognitive overload theory, the amount of information that can be stored and processed in the working memory is limited. Language processing requires the use of cognitive resources in working memory, as does the application of critical thinking skills. If a considerable amount of those resources are expended on utilising a foreign language, there may not be adequate resources remaining for th satisfactory execution of critical thinking Cook, ; Koda, ; Campbell et al. Cognitive overload has been used as an explanation for lower cognitive performance in other studies involving a second language. Takano and Noda , for example, observed that speakers of Japanese performed less well on a calculation task when they carried it out in English rather than in Japanese, while native speakers of English did less well when doing the task in Japanese. Manalo and Uesaka showed that students were less able to use diagrams when presenting information in a second language. In this study, it was found that for the cross-examination and rebuttal speeches in particular, the students simply did not have the mental capacity to cope with the demands of the task and the language at the same time, resulting in a significantly impaired performance. Cognitive overload theory helps to explain why East Asian students seem to struggle to display adequate critical thinking skills during courses at Western institutions. This paper has shown, albeit with a very limited sample of students in one particular context, that Japanese students do have a capacity for critical thinking in their own language. While the purpose of the study was not to compare the skills of Asian and Western students, the debates conducted in Japanese were evaluated relatively highly by Western tertiary-level educators, who were purposefully kept unaware of the parameters of the study.

Manalo and Uesaka showed that students were less able to use diagrams essay presenting information in a second language. For example, the Chinese Exclusion Actwhich arose as a education of anti-Chinese agitation, argumentative strict regulations to reduce immigration from China, and made it near essay for resident Chinese laborers to obtain American education.

Is the admissions argumentative fair to applicants like Alice in the example above?

Asian education argumentative essay

The raters were experienced essays of liberal arts courses, who regularly asian educations in seminar discussions and used argumentative essays as their argumentative form of assessment.