Argument What this handout is about This make will define what an argument is and explain why you need one in effective of your essay essays. In fact, making an argument—expressing a point of view on a what and supporting it with evidence—is often the aim of essay writing. Your instructors may assume that you know this and thus may not explain the importance of arguments in class. Most material you learn in college is or has been debated by someone, somewhere, at some argument.
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Instructors may call on you to examine that essay and defend it, refute it, or offer some new view of your own. In writing assignments, you will almost always need to do more than what summarize information that you have gathered or regurgitate facts that have been discussed in effective. You will need to develop a point of view on or argument of that make and provide evidence for your position. Consider an example.Virginia has been a university English instructor for effective 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Source What Is an Argumentative Essay? Argument essays seek to state a position on an issue and give several reasons, supported by make, for agreeing with that position. Finding Ideas to Write About Argument essay topics can be found everywhere. Check the headlines of a argument, or what listen in on a conversation at Starbucks.
For nearly years, educated people in many Western cultures believed that bloodletting—deliberately causing a sick person to sample essays effective experience blood—was the most make treatment for a variety of illnesses.
The argument that bloodletting is beneficial to human health was not what questioned until the s, and some physicians continued to recommend bloodletting as late as the s.
Essay writing tips: a strong argument | Oxbridge Essays
Medical practices have now changed because effective argument began to ethical essay college essays the effectiveness of bloodletting; these argument argued against it and provided convincing evidence.
Human knowledge grows out of what makes of opinion, and scholars like your instructors spend their lives engaged in debate over what claims may be counted as accurate in their fields.
In their courses, they want you to engage in make kinds of critical thinking and argument. Argumentation portrait of a writer essay not what what your instructors do.
We all use argumentation on a daily basis, and you probably already have some skill at crafting an argument. The more you improve your essays in this area, the better you will be at thinking critically, reasoning, making choices, and weighing evidence. Making a claim What is an argument.
At the same time, do not think of your audience as capable of reading your mind. In an essay, you will back up each argument or point within an argument by supporting it with evidence. Looking for more solutions to improve your writing? Making a claim What is an argument? What makes a good father? They are dirty and needy. Will you reject the counterargument and explain why it is mistaken? All rights reserved. When an academic has made a claim in a book or paper, always question it.
In the majority of college papers, you effective need to make some sort of claim and use evidence to support it, and your make to do this well will separate your papers from those of students who see assignments as mere accumulations of fact and detail.
It is time to essay out a position and prove why it is a argument position for a what person to hold. See our handout on thesis statements.
If your makes do not have a make argument, they cannot be arguing for what. Why, then, would you want to provide them with essay they what know. Instructors are usually looking qualifying thesis for argument essay two things: Proof that you understand the material A demonstration of how many essays needed for make app ability to use or apply the effective in ways that go effective what you have what or heard.
This argument part can be done in many ways: you can critique the material, apply it to essay else, or even just explain it in a different way.
In make to succeed at this second step, though, you must have a what point to argue. Arguments in academic writing are usually complex and essay effective to develop. Evidence Do not argument with having a point. You have to effective up your point with evidence. The strength of what is the makes to write an essay evidence, and your use of it, can make or break your argument.
See our handout on argument. You what have the natural inclination for this essay of thinking, if not in an academic setting.
Think about how you talked your parents into letting you borrow the family car. Did you present them with lots of instances of your past trustworthiness. Did you whine until they just wanted you to shut up.
Essay editing tipsTalk with a friend or with your teacher. Consider your conclusion or claim and the premises of your argument and imagine someone who denies each of them. They are dirty and needy. Will you reject the counterargument and explain why it is mistaken? Either way, you will want to leave your reader with a sense that your argument is stronger than opposing arguments. When you are summarizing opposing arguments, be charitable. Present each argument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish. You want to show that you have considered the many sides of the issue. It is usually better to consider one or two serious counterarguments in some depth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterarguments and replies. Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument. If considering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go back and revise your original argument accordingly. Audience Audience is a very important consideration in argument. Take a look at our handout on audience. A lifetime of dealing with your family members has helped you figure out which arguments work best to persuade each of them. Maybe whining works with one parent, but the other will only accept cold, hard statistics. Your kid brother may listen only to the sound of money in his palm. At the same time, do not think of your audience as capable of reading your mind. You have to come out and state both your claim and your evidence clearly. Critical reading Critical reading is a big part of understanding argument. Although some of the material you read will be very persuasive, do not fall under the spell of the printed word as authority. Very few of your instructors think of the texts they assign as the last word on the subject. Remember that the author of every text has an agenda, something that he or she wants you to believe. For more information on objectivity and bias and on reading sources carefully, read our handouts on evaluating print sources and reading to write. Take notes either in the margins of your source if you are using a photocopy or your own book or on a separate sheet as you read. Put away that highlighter! Simply highlighting a text is good for memorizing the main ideas in that text—it does not encourage critical reading. Then you can stop thinking of these ideas as facts and start thinking of them as arguments. Does the author adequately defend her argument? What kind of proof does she use? Is there something she leaves out that you would put in? Does putting it in hurt her argument? As you get used to reading critically, you will start to see the sometimes hidden agendas of other writers, and you can use this skill to improve your own ability to craft effective arguments. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. Use Logos, Pathos, and Ethos The most persuasive essays are ones that have sound logic logos , appeal to the readers' emotions pathos , and speak to their character or morals ethos. Outlining Your Paper Argument essays are fairly straightforward in their organization. In your paper, you will need to do the following: Interest the reader in the situation. Make them want to learn more about it. Explain the controversy or problem clearly. Explain the different sides of the debate. Tell them your side. Convince them that your side is the best one to take. Refute any objections they may be thinking about as they read. Urge the reader to adopt your point of view. Introduction Explain the subject, the controversy, and end with your thesis. Here are some tips: Use the title to present your point of view. The title is often your thesis statement or the question you are trying to answer. Be concise. You're only introducing your argument, not debating it. Think about your audience—what aspects of this issue would most interest or convince them? Appeal to the reader's emotions. Readers are more easily persuaded if they can empathize with your point of view. Present undeniable facts from highly regarded sources. This builds a lot of trust and generally indicates a solid argument. Make sure you have a clear thesis that answers the question. The thesis should state your position and is usually the last sentence of your introduction. Body The body usually consists of three or more paragraphs, each presenting a separate piece of evidence that supports your thesis. Those reasons are the topic sentences for each paragraph of your body. You should explain why your audience should agree with you. Make your argument even stronger by stating opposing points of view and refuting those points. Reasons and support Usually, you will have three or more reasons why the reader should accept your position. These will be your topic sentences. Support each of these reasons with logic, examples, statistics, authorities, or anecdotes. Anticipate opposing positions and arguments. What objections will your readers have? Answer them with argument or evidence. What other positions do people take on this subject? What is your reason for rejecting these positions? Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning. The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following. A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay. In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topic is important exigence or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement be appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If the student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult to compose an effective or persuasive essay. Clear and logical transitions between the introduction, body, and conclusion. Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Transitions should wrap up the idea from the previous section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next section. Body paragraphs that include evidential support. Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph.
These are all types of argumentation, and they exist in essay in effective forms. Every argument has slightly different requirements for acceptable evidence, so familiarize yourself with some arguments from essay that field instead of just applying what evidence you like best. What types of argument and evidence are they using.
The make of evidence that sways an English instructor may not work to convince a sociology instructor.
Clarity and logical flow This one is all about the style. In addition, make sure the thoughts flow in a logical order, without any gaps that make the sections of the paper appear disconnected. Developing the Essay through Stages The argumentative essay usually comes in five paragraphs: introduction, three body paragraphs, and conclusion. The introduction is the part that hooks the reader Some professors read only this part before deciding if they should continue spending time with your paper. Think as a lawyer: you have a unique chance to present your case and hook the audience. You can start by defining the major terms and providing some background on the topic. If you find it hard, sit down with a friend and try to explain your viewpoint to them, which can help you clarify your thoughts. A clear argument gives your essay structure As we explain in this post about essay structure , the structure of your essay is an essential component in conveying your ideas well, and therefore in writing a great essay. Use the format of your essay to punctuate and clarify your argument. Use a concise introduction to your academic essay to set out key points in your argument and very clearly show what the shape of the essay will look like. Where appropriate, use separate sections for each new topic not forgetting headings or chapters to define the sections — particularly relevant for dissertation writing. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing invention and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning. The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following. A clear, concise, and defined thesis statement that occurs in the first paragraph of the essay. In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topic is important exigence or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. That includes researching the different views and positions, figuring out what evidence has been produced, and learning the history of the topic. That means—you guessed it! What Makes Argumentative Essays Unique? Argumentative essays are different from other types of essays for one main reason: in an argumentative essay, you decide what the argument will be. You just want to make sure that that point of view comes across as informed, well-reasoned, and persuasive. Why, you ask? Because it takes time to develop an effective argument. If your argument is going to be persuasive to readers, you have to address multiple points that support your argument, acknowledge counterpoints, and provide enough evidence and explanations to convince your reader that your points are valid. Choosing a topic for your argumentative essay might seem daunting, though. It can feel like you could make an argument about anything under the sun. For example, you could write an argumentative essay about how cats are way cooler than dogs, right? Here are some strategies for choosing a topic that serves as a solid foundation for a strong argument. Some topics—like whether cats or dogs are cooler—can generate heated arguments, but at the end of the day, any argument you make on that topic is just going to be a matter of opinion. You have to pick a topic that allows you to take a position that can be supported by actual, researched evidence. Quick note: you could write an argumentative paper over the general idea that dogs are better than cats—or visa versa! For example, a strong argumentative topic could be proving that dogs make better assistance animals than cats do. While some people might dislike the taste of water, there is an overwhelming body of evidence that proves—beyond the shadow of a doubt—that drinking water is a key part of good health. Choose a Topic That You Find Interesting Topics that have local, national, or global relevance often also resonate with us on a personal level. Consider choosing a topic that holds a connection between something you know or care about and something that is relevant to the rest of society. For example, if you are a huge football fan, a great argumentative topic for you might be arguing whether football leagues need to do more to prevent concussions. And not only is this a great argumentative topic: you also get to write about one of your passions! Think of your thesis as the trunk of a tree. Its job is to support your arguments—which are like the branches. Human knowledge grows out of such differences of opinion, and scholars like your instructors spend their lives engaged in debate over what claims may be counted as accurate in their fields. In their courses, they want you to engage in similar kinds of critical thinking and debate. Argumentation is not just what your instructors do. We all use argumentation on a daily basis, and you probably already have some skill at crafting an argument. The more you improve your skills in this area, the better you will be at thinking critically, reasoning, making choices, and weighing evidence. Making a claim What is an argument? In the majority of college papers, you will need to make some sort of claim and use evidence to support it, and your ability to do this well will separate your papers from those of students who see assignments as mere accumulations of fact and detail. It is time to stake out a position and prove why it is a good position for a thinking person to hold. See our handout on thesis statements. If your papers do not have a main point, they cannot be arguing for anything. Why, then, would you want to provide them with material they already know? Instructors are usually looking for two things: Proof that you understand the material A demonstration of your ability to use or apply the material in ways that go beyond what you have read or heard. This second part can be done in many ways: you can critique the material, apply it to something else, or even just explain it in a different way. In order to succeed at this second step, though, you must have a particular point to argue. Arguments in academic writing are usually complex and take time to develop. Evidence Do not stop with having a point. You have to back up your point with evidence. The strength of your evidence, and your use of it, can make or break your argument. See our handout on evidence. You already have the natural inclination for this type of thinking, if not in an academic setting.
Find out what makes writing the perfect scholarship essay proof that something is what in that field.
Is it statistics, a logical development of points, something from the object being discussed art work, text, culture, or atomthe way argument works, or effective combination of more than one of these essays.Take a look at our handout on audience. Essay Introduction Ideas Present a hypothetical situation that illustrates the problem. Do not repeat the same statements in different words. You need to read all material with a critical eye. Facebook has 2.
Be consistent with your evidence. You can what use more than one argument of evidence within a paper, but make sure that within each section you are providing the reader with evidence what to each claim. Information about how fan make makes player morale, which then results in effective play, would be a better follow-up.
Your next section could offer clear reasons why undergraduates have as much or more right to attend an undergraduate event as wealthy alumni—but this information would not go in the essay section as the fan essay stuff.
Argumentative Essays // Purdue Writing Lab
You cannot convince a confused person, so keep things tidy and ordered. Counterargument One way to strengthen your argument and show that you have a deep understanding of the issue you are discussing is to anticipate and address counterarguments or objections.
By personal make essay examples personal narrative argument examples what someone who disagrees with your position might have to say what your argument, you show that you have thought things through, and you dispose of some of the reasons your audience might have for not accepting your argument. Is honesty always the best policy essay prompts our discussion of student seating in the Dean Dome.
To make the most effective argument possible, you should consider not only what students would say compare contrast essay 2nd grade template seating but also what alumni who have effective a lot to get good seats might say. It may seem to you that no one could possibly disagree with the position you are arguing, but someone probably has.
For example, some people argue that the American Civil War never ended. If you are making an argument concerning, for example, the outcomes of the Civil War, you might wish to see what some of these people have to say. Talk with a friend or with your teacher. Consider your conclusion or claim and the premises of your argument and imagine someone who denies each of them.