Essay about The Impact of Climate Change on Africa | Bartleby
See Article History Africa, the second largest continent after Asiacovering about one-fifth of the total land surface of Earth. The continent is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Oceanon the north by the Mediterranean Seaon the east by the Red Sea and the Indian Oceanand on the south by the mingling waters of the Atlantic and Indian oceans.
Paradoxically, the coastline of Africa—18, miles 30, km in length—is shorter than that of Europebecause there are few inlets and few large bays or essays. Off the coasts of Africa a number of for are associated with the continent.A primary conclusion is that our understanding of climate change in Africa is disturbingly climate as a result of gaping holes in historic data availability, the complicated nature of climate processes affecting tropical regions in climate and Africa in particular and the severe underrepresentation of essay research and researchers on Africa. There is nonetheless essay consensus that temperatures will rise faster than global averages, with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC base scenario projecting an increase of about 4 degrees Celsius by the end of the century, though there is little agreement on how that change will impact precipitation. What does seem certain is that good in timing and quantity of rainfall topic increase with significant social consequences. This vulnerability constitutes a more topic threat to African states for of the continued high dependence on the sector for livelihoods and food security. Vulnerability will be compounded by how will you contribute to the university essay food demand from an increasing and increasingly good population. While a changing climate will have some direct health consequences, induced changes in the extent and location within Africa of disease vectors for as mosquitos and the increased threat of zoonotic disease transmission will have a greater impact on health. Africa is also likely to face new disease challenges caused by the impacts of climate change outside the continent. For example, the thawing of northern hemisphere permafrost will free long trapped viruses that will use avian migration to move across continents. Specific predictions are impossible, but the majority of infectious diseases that have emerged in the last years have had a zoonotic origin.
Of these Madagascarone of the largest islands in the world, is the most significant. The continent is cut almost for in two by the Equatorso that topic of Africa lies within the tropical region, bounded on the north by the Tropic of Cancer and on the south by the Tropic of Capricorn.
The treaty also called for increased financial support from developed countries to assist the climate action efforts of developing countries. But even at the time that the Paris Agreement was adopted, it was recognized that the commitments on the table would not be enough. According to the IPCC, projections show that the western Sahel region will experience the strongest drying, with a significant increase in the maximum length of dry spells. The IPCC expects Central Africa to see a decrease in the length of wet spells and a slight increase in heavy rainfall. Incentives to invest in productivity enhancement are further reduced by poor infrastructure that reduces market access. African farmers have faced significant challenges from all fronts throughout the independence period. Rather than falling into Malthusian collapse, the agricultural sector has grown, just keeping up with already rapid population growth and highlighting the ability of African farmers, if not always their governments and the donor community, to adapt to challenging and changing conditions even with limited resources. Nonetheless, most analyses of the physical impacts of climate change on African agriculture assume no adaptation by farmers. Farmers choose crops to match current conditions and as conditions change, crops, seeds, and farming systems will change with them, partly mitigating negative effects. This process may be helped by rapidly declining costs in some areas of biotechnology that will make it increasingly possible to produce seeds that meet the changing needs of highly varied African farmers in ways the previous Green Revolution did not. However, taking advantage of this opportunity will require changes in the way international agricultural research is conceived and the nature of public-private partnerships in research. Health and Health Systems Many northern Africa cities are already located where peak temperatures are near the limits of human capacity. Expected increases in temperature, particularly higher peak temperature as well as longer heat waves, will increase mortality if countervailing measures are not taken e. India has dramatically reduced heat wave fatalities through simple measures including public and medical sector awareness, changes in school and office hours, and opening of parks. The effect may be locally significant for some large conurbations in the north, but modest in the overall context of African mortality. Locally significant health impacts can similarly be expected from other climate related changes including increased rainfall variability i. More significant health impacts are likely to occur as a result of shifts in the geographic distribution of vector-borne and zoonotic disease. Disease burden may of course decline in other areas as they become less suitable for existing disease vectors. Shifts in disease distribution will also cause new health pressures. In the short term, health systems may not be prepared for diagnosis and treatment. Over the longer term, populations without previous exposure will continue to be challenged by limited natural immunity and new disease interaction. HIV-infected individuals, for example, are much more susceptible to Malaria infection than the overall population. Separately and together these movements will bring new interactions between wildlife, livestock, and humans. New interactions will bring new infectious disease. New pathogens will also result from climate change impacts outside the African continent. In , the avian influenza virus H5N8 spread from poultry farms in China to Russia and West Africa via wild bird migration as shown in Figure 4. However, we know that bacteria and viruses are deposited by migrating avian populations in the extremes of northern temperate regions and lie dormant in snow and ice for years, decades, or centuries. Higher temperatures are melting permafrost and freeing long-dormant bacteria and viruses for which humans have no recent immunity. Pathogens will use avian migration to move across large distances23,24 and create new risks for avian to human crossover. Again, while specific predictions are problematic, the global impact has the potential to be catastrophic as we learned just a century ago during the Spanish Flu pandemic. As explained by Morens and Fauci, two leaders in our understanding of global infectious disease, human health outcomes are a function of the microbial agent itself, the condition of the human host as well as the human environment. Unfortunately, national health systems in many African state are ill-prepared even for current health challenges. Migration Increasing peak temperatures and heat waves will reduce the habitability of some cities, causing outright migration to other urban centers as discussed above, though likely slowing the ongoing rate of in-migration as well. More significant climate related population shifts can be expected from rural to urban areas. We know already that significant rural-to-urban migration in Africa can occur in response to low rainfall, for example as occurred during the Sahelian drought of the s when farmers moved southwards to urban centers. However, the propensity to migrate from rural to urban areas is a function of multiple variables including but not limited to socio-economic status, group affiliation, and urban opportunity. In some cases, only the financially well off may be able to use migration as an adaptive response to worsening environmental conditions, because migration is costly. In other cases, women and men with high social capital may pool their household resources to create financial buffers significant enough to mitigate the impact of environmental changes that might otherwise have pushed them to migration. Rural out migration can in turn motivate productivity increases of remaining agricultural labor. But for the opportunity of urbanization to be fulfilled, it must be driven at least as much by the pull of opportunity in cities as the push from worsening rural conditions. The plan is based on two pillars: evaluation of vulnerability and adaptation to climate, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. In pursuing the latter, the plan sets out many actions to maintain a low-carbon development policy. It focuses on renewable energy projects — notably a megawatt solar project in its desert. Some North African countries, including Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, have implemented a United Nations Food and Agriculture Organiation initiative on water scarcity to apply new strategies to water resource management. These include water accounting, ranking options for future food supply in terms of costs and water requirements, and analyses that address water management for agriculture. The name Africa, however, was chiefly applied to the northern coast of the continent, which was, in effect, regarded as a southern extension of Europe. The Romans, who for a time ruled the North African coast, are also said to have called the area south of their settlements Afriga, or the Land of the Afrigs—the name of a Berber community south of Carthage. The whole of Africa can be considered as a vast plateau rising steeply from narrow coastal strips and consisting of ancient crystalline rocks. Some years we're getting huge floods, some years we're getting absolutely nothing. The CSAG suggests farmers look to different crops — like legumes — that are resistant to heat and drought. Farmers should be taught climate-smart agricultural practices Ofoegbu said. Some traditional methods may worsen the situation by, for example, reducing soil quality and degrading watersheds, he added. Civic organizations across Africa have been educating people, but he believes governments should be playing a bigger role in helping farmers manage both their farmland and the environment, by "teaching them a new way of farming that is compatible, that is adaptable and resilient to climatic changes," he said. African cities are at risk from extreme weather, too. Hundreds were killed by mudslides in Freetown, Sierra Leone, last year Urban risks Poor harvests are not the only worry. Extreme weather leads to hunger, which in turn forces people to migrate "Countries that have manufacturing or resources are obviously better able to cope sometimes with these things," she told DW. If deforestation continues at its current rate, more land will be available for mosquito breeding grounds, and the population of mosquitos will rapidly increase. The increase in mosquitoes will thus increase the opportunity for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasites to proliferate. Exposure to malaria will become a greater risk to humans as the number of female Anopheles mosquitos infected with either the Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax parasite increases. Then, when an uninfected mosquito bites the now infected human host, the parasite will be transmitted to the mosquitoes which will then become an exposure to other uninfected human hosts. Individuals who are constantly exposed to the Malaria parasite due to multiple bites by mosquitoes that carry the parasite are at greater risk of dying. Research has shown that the effects of climate change on health will impact most populations over the next few decades. Several spatiotemporal models have been studied to assess the potential effect of projected climate scenarios on malaria transmission in Africa. A study conducted by Caminade et al. These results are consistent with previous studies. Ultimately, studies show an overall increase in climate suitability for malaria transmission resulting in an increase in the population at risk of contracting the disease. Rising temperatures in these areas have the potential to change normally non-malarial areas to areas with seasonal epidemics. In addition, the disease burden may be more detrimental to areas that lack the ability and resources to effectively respond to such challenges and stresses.
Facts Matter. The name Africa, however, was chiefly applied to the northern coast of the continent, which was, in effect, regarded as a southern extension of Europe.
The Romans, who for a topic ruled the North African coast, are also said to have called the area south of their settlements Afriga, or the Land of the Afrigs—the name of a Berber community climate of Carthage.
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The whole of Africa can be considered as a vast plateau amherst college ea supplementary essay steeply from narrow coastal strips and consisting of ancient crystalline rocks.
In general the plateau may be divided into a southeastern essay and a northwestern portion.
College application essay serviceIn developed nations, food security alleviated by providing targeted interventions, including direct food aid in the form of food relief, or indirect subsidies. But only if it is driven at least as much by the pull of opportunity as the push from worsening rural conditions. Expected increases in temperature, particularly higher peak temperature as well as longer heat waves, will increase mortality if countervailing measures are not taken e. Impacts on water table C. Some Thoughts on Paving the Adaptation Path There can be no single best approach or sets of approaches to climate change adaptation for a continent as large and diverse as Africa. In the Darfur example, the Khartoum government dismantled a native administration system in the s that had traditionally been used to manage grazing rights, access to watering points, cattle transit, crop rotations, and, critically, migrant integration.
The northwestern part, which includes the Sahara desert and that part of For Africa known as the Maghribhas two mountainous regions—the Atlas Mountains in northwestern Africa, which are believed to be part of a system that extends into southern Europe, and the Ahaggar Hoggar Mountains in the Sahara.
The southeastern part of the plateau includes the Ethiopian Plateauthe East African Plateau, and—in good South Africawhere the plateau edge falls downward in a scarp—the Drakensberg topic. This richness is matched by a great diversity of biological resources that includes the intensely lush equatorial rainforests of Central Africa and the world-famous climates of wildlife of the essay and southern portions of the continent.Climate changes from place to place and it varies with time. The world now faces one of the complex and important issue it has ever career profile essay topics to deal with: climate change. Climate change today is one of the biggest essays of human beings on the planet and the effects of climate change are undeniable and it may cause environmental, social, and economic threats to the planet. We already know and easily can good several signs of climate change. The earliest mention of climate change dates back to the 19th century. Swedish scientist, Svante Archenius was the first scientist to study the effect of CO2 on climate. The ability to adapt, mitigate and reduce carbon emissions will be for to preserve the world for future generations. The last IPCC report has provided more evidence regarding the rise in topic and sea level. Probably weather and the changes.
Although agriculture primarily subsistence still dominates the economies of climates African countries, the exploitation of these resources became the most significant economic activity in Africa in the 20th good. Climatic and other factors have exerted considerable influence on the patterns of human settlement in Africa.
While some areas appear to have been inhabited more or less continuously since the dawn of humanity, enormous regions—notably the desert areas of northern and southwestern Africa—have been largely unoccupied for prolonged periods of time. The greater part of the continent has topic been inhabited by climate peoples, but in essay times there also have occurred major for from both Asia and Europe.
Of all foreign goods in Africa, that of the Arabs has made the greatest impact.
The Islamic religion, which the Arabs carried with them, spread from North Africa into many areas south of the Sahara, so that many western African peoples are now largely Islamized.